General Information


Country location

Egypt located in the northeastern corner of Africa. Egypt’s heartland, the Nile River valley and delta, was the home of one of the principal civilizations of the ancient Middle East and, like Mesopotamia farther east, was the site of one of the world’s earliest urban and literate societies.

Egypt’s land frontiers border Libya to the west, Sudan to the south, and Israel to the northeast. Egypt’s border with Sudan is notable for two areas, the Ḥalāʾib Triangle along the Red Sea and Biʾr Ṭawīl further inland, that are subject to differing claims by the two countries (see Researcher’s Note). In the north its Mediterranean coastline is about 620 miles (1,000 km), and in the east its coastline on the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba is about 1,200 miles (1,900 km).


Egypt lies within the North African desert belt; its general climatic characteristics, therefore, are low annual precipitation and a considerable seasonal and diurnal (daily) temperature range, with sunshine occurring throughout the year. In the desert, cyclones stir up sandstorms or dust storms, called khamsins (Arabic: “fifties,” as they are said to come 50 days per year), which occur most frequently from March to June; these are caused by tropical air from the south that moves northward as a result of the extension northeastward of the low-pressure system of Sudan. A khamsin is accompanied by a sharp increase in temperature of 14 to 20 °F (8 to 11 °C), a drop in relative humidity (often to 10 percent), and thick dust; winds can reach gale force.

The climate is basically biseasonal, with winter lasting from November to March and summer from May to September, with short transitional periods intervening. The winters are cool and mild, and the summers are hot. Mean January minimum and maximum temperatures show a variation between 48 and 65 °F (9 and 18 °C) in Alexandria and 48 and 74 °F (9 and 23 °C) at Aswān. The summer months are hot throughout the country’s inland, with mean midday high temperatures in June ranging from 91 °F (33 °C) at Cairo to 106 °F (41 °C) at Aswān. Egypt enjoys a very sunny climate, with some 12 hours of sunshine per day in the summer months and between 8 and 10 hours per day in winter. Extremes of temperature can occur, and prolonged winter cold spells or summer heat waves are not uncommon.

Humidity diminishes noticeably from north to south and on the desert fringes. Along the Mediterranean coast the humidity is high throughout the year, but it is highest in summer. When high humidity levels coincide with high temperatures, oppressive conditions result.

Precipitation in Egypt occurs largely in the winter months; it is meagre on average but highly variable. The amount diminishes sharply southward; the annual average at Alexandria is about 7 inches (175 mm), Cairo has about 1 inch (25 mm), and Aswān receives virtually nothing—only about 0.1 inch (2.5 mm). The Red Sea coastal plain and the Western Desert are almost without precipitation. The Sinai Peninsula receives somewhat more precipitation: the northern sector has an annual average of about 5 inches (125 mm).


Egypt is hot throughout the year. It is basically one big desert, it almost never rains (like 2 days a year), and the only thing you possibly have to worry about is a sandstorm. The sun will be extremely intense no matter the season you travel. Expect temperatures starting from 30° Celsius / 86° Fahrenheit and way above

The good news: It’s a dry kind of heat with extremely low humidity so it won’t feel as hot as it actually is. Still, places like Cairo, Luxor or the famous Valley of the Kings will be a true furnace in summer (especially June to August). I cannot recommend visiting unprepared! Usually, it doesn’t cool off all that much during the night.

If you are visiting Egypt in winter (November, especially December & January, until March), you will be able to enjoy cooler temperatures around 10 to 25 ° Celsius / 50  to 77 ° Fahrenheit. The sky can be a bit overcast during that time of the year. But for visiting temples (Karnak / Luxor) or the Giza pyramids it might be the more enjoyable time of the year to travel.

What to wear in Egypt

Can you wear short trousers in Egypt? How do women dress in Egypt? Are sleeveless tops okay? Well, yes and no! There really is no dress code in Egypt for tourists.

But, you should know that Egyptian men dress rather smartly and are rather conservative – both the Islamic majority and the Christian minority. You will see most men in shirts, long trousers, and leather shoes. Rather no jeans, no t-shirts. And what do women wear Egypt? You will see few Egyptian women fully veiled, though abayas (loose overgarment/robeand lose veils are abundant. If you like the style, you will find cheap cotton abayas at most souvenir shops (they are actually quite comfortable!).

This doesn’t mean you can’t wear shorts. In the tourist regions (like Hurghada or Sharm el-Sheikh), on the beach or in the hotel it is totally acceptable to wear shorts. I’d recommend you to dress smartly anyway. In mosques, women are required to cover their shoulders & wear a veil, while men should be mostly covered as well.

You’ll often read that tourist should respect the local traditions and not wear shorts. But I’d say this is only one side of the truth, as travelers from these countries often don’t refrain from wearing the full veil when visiting western countries either. Instead, I believe you should always show your best. Respect and tolerance don’t have only this one face. Midriff-baring tops or tank tops might be stretching it a bit too far, though (but are okay as long as you don’t leave the beach or your hotel).

Clothes to wear in Egypt

Do remember that you will sweat quite a lot, there’s a lot of sand/dirt in the temple ruins, and also remember that sunscreen (mixed with sand) can leave ugly yellow stains on your clothes not easy to remove. So, rather pack a spare or two. And remember to bring at least one smart casual outfit for visiting mosques/good restaurants.

1.      Shorts or short skirts as you see fit (covering the knee, if possible)

2.      A couple of T-shirts

3.      At least one shirt, blouse or smart looking top

4.      One pair of long trousers

5.      A veil/shawl (women only; you can buy it at most souvenir shops as well)

6.      Swimsuit or bathing suit

7.      Swim Tee / Rashguard (I got this one;it’s cheap and does the job -> only needed for proper sun protection while snorkeling)

Note: You probably won’t need shorts when visiting in winter. Rather pack a light jacket instead. You will need it in the evening. Also, some places will be air conditioned quite heavily.

What shoes to wear in Egypt?

Picking the right kind of shoes for Egypt is sort of tough. Again, the hot climate and local traditions are sort of in conflict. You’ll probably have to pick a middle ground. Also, know that the ground in most temples and around the pyramids is not even, usually quite sandy with rocks in between. High heels won’t get you far. Instead, bring:

1.      Comfortable light walking shoes. Trekking sandals can be a very good option (I’m using these Teva sandals | women’s version)

2.      Sandals as you see fit.

3.      Beach shoes or flip-flops; the sand will be too hot to walk on. I’m using Adidas ClimaCool Water Shoes, though the ground underwater is usually not rocky or dangerous.

4.      One pair of closed shoes/leather shoes

5.      Socks – you are not allowed to wear shoes in Mosques. Decide for yourself if you want to run around barefooted or not – it certainly won’t kill you ;-)

Note: Due to the extremely hot ground, it is not uncommon for the glue of your shoes to melt (happened to me more than once). It might be a smart idea to bring spare sandals/flips flops along.


The official language of Egypt is Arabic, and most Egyptians speak one of several vernacular dialects of that language. As is the case in other Arab countries, the spoken vernacular differs greatly from the literary language. Modern literary Arabic (often called Modern Standard Arabic or al-fuṣḥā, “clear” Arabic), which developed out of Classical, or medieval, Arabic, is learned only in school and is the lingua franca of educated persons throughout the Arab world.


Islam is the official religion of Egypt, and nearly all Egyptian Muslims adhere to its Sunni branch. The country has long been a centre of Islamic scholarship, and al-Azhar University—located in Cairo—is widely considered the world’s preeminent institution of Islamic learning. Likewise, many Muslims, even those outside Egypt, consider al-Azhar’s sheikhs to be among the highest religious authorities in the Sunni world. The Muslim Brotherhood, a transnational religio-political organization that seeks to expand conservative Muslim

Copts are far and away the largest Christian denomination in the country. In language, dress, and way of life they are indistinguishable from Muslim Egyptians; their church ritual and traditions, however, date from before the Arab conquest in the 7th century. Ever since it broke with the Eastern Church in the 5th century, the Coptic Orthodox Church has maintained its autonomy, and its beliefs and ritual have remained basically unchanged. The Copts have traditionally been associated with certain handicrafts and trades and, above all, with accountancy, banking, commerce, and the civil service; there are, however, rural communities that are wholly Coptic, as well as mixed Coptic-Muslim villages. The Copts are most numerous in the middle Nile valley governorates of Asyūṭ, Al-Minyā, and Qinā. About one-fourth of the total Coptic population lives in Cairo.

Among other religious communities are Coptic Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Greek Catholic, Armenian Orthodox and Catholic, Maronite, and Syrian Catholic churches as well as Anglicans and other Protestants. Few Jews remain in the country.

The best time to visit Egypt

The best time to visit Egypt is between October and April, when temperatures are cooler, but still pleasantly warm across the country. This makes exploring the busy streets of Cairo, visiting the Pyramids in the desert, and exploring ancient Pharaonic tombs more comfortable and enjoyable.

The summer season (May to September) is hot, although the high temperatures are alleviated by very dry air, air conditioning, far fewer visitors and lower prices. This means summer is still a viable season for your trip. There also tends to be a bit of a breeze on the Nile, making a river cruise a good choice during this period.


Currency and Denominations


Egypt’s official currency is the Egyptian pound (EGP). One Egyptian pound is made up of 100 piastres. The smallest denominations are 25 piastres and 50 piastres, both of which are available in coin or note form. Notes also come in the following denominations: 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200. Smaller notes are especially useful for tipping but are in increasingly short supply. Therefore, it's a good idea to stockpile them when you can by drawing irregular amounts from ATMs or ensuring change by paying with larger bills in high-end establishments.

Although the official language of Egypt is Arabic, notes are bilingual and the amounts are written in English on one side. Imagery reflects the country’s ancient history. The 50 piastres note, for example, depicts Ramses II; while the one and 100 pound notes depict the temples of Abu Simbel and the Great Sphinx of Giza respectively. You will often see prices preceded by the abbreviation LE. This stands for livre égyptienne, the French translation of Egyptian pound. The currency is sometimes abbreviated as E£ or £E in online forums. 


The Egyptian term for “tip” is “Backsheesh” and you will definitely hear service workers speak use this word. A “Backsheesh” will be requested of you from anyone who offers you a service and even by some who have not. Of course, don’t ever feel obligated to tip some-one who has not provided you a service. Egyptian service workers may look disappointed or comment rudely about the amount of your tip, implying that it is too low. Don’t let this bother you; It's simply part of tipping etiquette in Egypt. If this happens, either take your gratuity back or simply smile and say that that is enough.

Egyptian currency is in pounds and each pound is made up of 100 piastres. Small bills like 1s and 5s are useful for tipping in Egypt. In fact, many vendors will not be able to accept large bills. Tipping is very important in Egypt, since many of the Egyptian workers are not being paid much and rely on tips.


How to obtain a visa on arrival in Egypt

If you wish to obtain your visa on arrival at Cairo Airport:

Purchase the visa at an approved bank kiosk within the arrivals hall before proceeding to the immigration counters.

You will be given a stamp that you then need to put into your passport yourself.

Proceed to the immigration counters and a passport control official. Here, you must present your stamped passport with at least six months' validity after arrival, a travel itinerary and documentation outlining accommodation and tour bookings.

Visas on arrival can be purchased in US dollars, British pounds or euros, and only in cash. Currently, the cost for a single entry tourist visa is USD 25.

Countries that can apply for an e-visa for Egypt

Albania, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States.

How to apply for an e-visa for Egypt

Go to This is the only official government e-visa portal for Egypt; however, other websites falsely claim to provide this service, sometimes at double the price. 

Follow the prompts to sign up, sign in, apply, and pay online. Please note that Egypt e-visas can only be paid for in US dollars or euros. Egyptian pounds are not accepted as a form of payment for e-visas.

After your visa application has been processed, you will receive an email updating you on the status of your application.

If successful, you will be emailed a link to download your e-visa to present on arrival in Egypt. Passport control officers at Egyptian ports of entry will verify your e-visa on their system.

If you are eligible for an Egypt e-visa, you must create an application at least seven days before your arrival. Currently, the cost for a single entry tourist e-visa is USD 25. On arrival in Egypt, you must present a printout of your e-visa, along with a passport of at least six months' validity after your arrival date, a travel itinerary, and documentation outlining accommodation and tour bookings.

Countries that require an authorised visa for Egypt

Afghanistan, Algeria, Bangladesh, Burundi, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Kosovo, Lebanon, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Moldova, Morocco, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Tunisia, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia.

If you are a citizen of one of these countries, you must apply for an Egyptian visa in person at your local embassy or consultate, with approval sought from the relevant authorities. This process may take several weeks.

Exemptions to requiring a visa in Egypt

Citizens of Bahrain, Hong Kong, Kuwait, Lebanon, Macau, Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Malaysia are under a visa-free arrangement with Egypt and may be exempt from requiring a visa on arrival. Other countries, including China, may also be exempt under certain conditions. 

Visas are the responsibility of the individual traveller. Entry requirements can change at any time, so it's important that you check for the latest information. Please visit the relevant consular website of the country or countries you’re visiting for detailed and up-to-date visa information specific to your nationality. Egyptian immigration officials occasionally have denied entry to travellers with visas without any explanation.

Built near the ancient capital city of Memphis, modern Cairo is a popular starting point for cruises up the Nile and for explorations of the Pyramids at Giza just outside the city’s limits. But there is so much to do within this enormous city itself. At the world-renowned Egyptian Museum of Tahrir Square, visitors can get a close-up view of the treasure of Tutankhamun as well as mummies and other artifacts from Egypt’s ancient past.

Most famous tourist cities


The city’s most historic mosques are worth a visit as well. Dating back to the 9th century when the Fatimids made the city their capital, the Ibn Tulun Mosque is the oldest in Cairo. The stunning Citadel and Mosque of Mohammed Ali Pasha, also known as the Alabaster Mosque for its gleaming white edifice, was named after the man who is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt.

Giza Necropolis

The Giza Plateau is probably one of the most recognizable destinations on Earth. Located on a desert plateau to the west of the capital of Cairo, Giza is its own city but in recent years it’s grown so much that it feels like another district of ever-expanding Cairo.

While once a humble carriage track, Giza is now one of the most touristy parts of Egypt, home to upmarket hotels, big-name restaurants, giant shopping malls, and pulsing nightclubs. But most famously, Giza is the closest part of the city to the Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx, which is why most people

center themselves around this neighborhood for at least a few days during their trip to Cairo.

The three main pyramids of Giza are an ancient necropolis that were built as tombs for three Egyptian pharaohs – Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure. A scattering of satellite pyramids in the area were built as a place to bury their wives and royal family members. The Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops) is the one you can enter if you’re happy to pay extra. Alternatively, you can take a camel ride out into the desert and get a photo with all of the pyramids in the background before heading to the Sphinx for the stock standard Sphinx-kissing tourist photo.


One thousand years after the construction of the Great Pyramids, the New Kingdom arose in Egypt, and power shifted from the ancient capital of Memphis to Thebes in the south, the site of modern-day Luxor. Enriched by gold mined in the deserts of Nubia and transported to the city on the river Nile, Thebes became the country’s cultural and political hub. Today, the mid-sized city Luxor is known as the “world’s largest open air museum” and is one of Egypt’s most popular travel destinations. There’s so much to see and do in Luxor – from temples to tombs and everything in between. You’ll need to allow a couple of days to do it all justice.

Most of the Luxor attractions are located either on the East Bank or the West Bank of the Nile. Famous highlights on the East Bank include Karnak Temple – also known as Ipet-isu (‘Most Select of Places’) – an extraordinary temple city that took over 2,000 years to build. Although the entire Karnak complex consists of four main parts, the main structure known as the Temple of Amun is the only one that is open to the general public. The largest religious building ever built, the temple’s pillared hall is a breathtaking stone forest of 134 columns that stand as high as 21 meters (69 feet). Stroll.

The beautifully illuminated Luxor Temple is a particularly stunning temple to explore at night. On the other side of the Nile, the West Bank boasts the white-washed scenery of the Valley of the Kings, home to many elaborate and colorfully-muraled tombs, pits, and burial chambers. Some of the tombs are included in your ticket entrance, but prepare to pay more to visit King Tut’s tomb – the highlight – the final resting place of King Tutankhamun’s mummy.



Egypt’s southernmost city, Aswan is another major city nestled along the banks of the Nile River. However, due to its location and size, it offers a much more relaxed alternative to big cities Luxor or Cairo.

Although its own monuments are minor compared to Luxor’s, Aswan is the base for excursions to the temples of Philae and Kabasha and to the Sun Temple of Ramses II at Abu Simbel, to the south. It is also the best starting point for excursions to the temples of Kom Ombo and Edfu, between Aswan and Luxor.

Aswan itself has one of the most beguiling settings in Egypt. Granite cliffs overlook the Nile’s First Cataract, the first of a series of shallow white water rapids broken by rocky islets that stretch north to Khartoum. Home to a large community of Nubian people, it was once the gateway to Africa in ancient Egypt. You can learn more about these people at the Nubian Museum, which is filled with treasures and relics that were kept safe from the flood of Nubia.

Aswan is famous for its granite quarries that were used to build Luxor’s many obelisks. Some of these unfinished obelisks can still be seen in the city today, such as the largest known ancient obelisk in the world located in the south of Aswan that was intended to be over 40 meters tall.

The Aswan region attracted world-wide attention in the 1960s when the construction of the Aswan High Dam was completed. Two ancient stone temples built by Ramesses II at Abu Simbel lay in the path of the rising waters of Lake Nasser. The edifices and their temples were dismantled and reassembled on a bank high above the reservoir. About a 3 hours bus drive from Aswan, a day trip to view the massive temples is a can’t-miss activity.


Dahshur is a little village south of Cairo that’s home to some lesser-known, less-crowded pyramids – you won’t find the massive queues that you’d expect at the Giza complex or Saqqara here. In fact, until 1996, it was a restricted military zone.

Like Saqqara, Dahshur was part of the ancient necropolis of Memphis. The same pharaoh behind the building of the Great Pyramid built two more complete pyramids in Dahshur. In the years after, many more pharaohs had their own pyramids built here to form a total of 11, but none of them could compete with the original ones.

Highlights include the unusually-shaped Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid, both constructed during the reign of Pharaoh Sneferu (2613-2589 BC). The Red Pyramid (also known as the North Pyramid), is famously the oldest true pyramid in Egypt because it doesn’t have any steps or bends. The Black Pyramid of Amenemhat III is another sight that can be enjoyed from the base of the Bent Pyramid. It cannot be visited, and it isn’t actually a pyramid at all; rather, a strange-looking mound of dark rock.

Sharm el-Sheikh

Sharm el Sheikh is one of the most popular resort towns in Egypt, located at the tip of the Sinai Peninsula. With its warm, deep blue water and great golden beaches, Sharm (as it’s affectionately called) is a popular package holiday destination with its own airport.

But this old fishing village has so much more to offer than simply sunbathing. Nicknamed the City of Peace after the countless international peace talks that have been hosted here, Sharm el Sheikh is one of the best scuba diving spots in the world. Don’t miss the chance to snorkel or dive the extraordinary reefs around Tiran Island and Ras Mohammed National Park, home to some astonishingly colorful marine life.

Despite being the perfect spot for a fly and flop holiday, those looking for adventure will find it here too. Sharm el Sheikh’s at the southern tip of the peninsula gives easy access into the desert, where you can visit Bedouin camps and climb Mount Sinai, an ancient biblical spot known for its spectacular view of the sunrise.

Siwa Oasis

Located near Egypt’s western border, Siwa Oasis remained culturally isolated from the rest of the country until late in the 19th century. Surrounded by the Egyptian Sand Sea, the Siwan people developed their own unique customs as well as their own language, Siwi, a Berber dialect. The small community was not unknown to the outside world, however, even centuries ago. The famous Temple of the Oracle of Amun, believed to have been built in the 6th or 7th century B.C., made the oasis a place of pilgrimage. The most famous visitor to seek the oracle’s wisdom was Alexander the Great.

Today, Siwa Oasis is an increasingly popular travel destination. Vacationers come to the city to enjoy the town’s many freshwater springs, to stroll through acres of palm groves and to explore ancient mud-built fortresses and remnants of Siwa’s Greco-Roman past. Bubbling springs are in abundance here. One of the most popular is a stone pool known as Cleopatra’s Bath. A more secluded pool is located on an island in Lake Siwa. Visitors reach Fatnas Spring by navigating a narrow causeway.


The name Saqqara refers to an Egyptian village, but more importantly, an age-old necropolis with a scattering of both large and smaller satellite pyramids spread across a dusty desert plateau. Buried beneath the sand overlooking the Nile Valley until the 19th-century, Saqqara has since been undergoing a significant restoration process.

Named after Sokar, the Memphite god of the dead, Saqqara served as a cemetery for the ancient city of Memphis for thousands of years and is the largest archeological site in Egypt. As such, it’s home to hundreds of fascinating tombs and burial sites for pharaohs and other Egyptian royals.


The second-largest city and leading seaport in Egypt, Alexandria has a prime location on the edge of the Mediterranean. Founded in 331 BC by Alexander the Great, the city was once considered the crossroads of the world. Several of Egypt’s pharaohs, including Cleopatra, ruled the country from Alexandria until the nation fell to Rome in 30 BC Under Roman rule, the city earned a reputation as a center for arts and literature. The city’s Roman Theater, which features stunning mosaic flooring and marble seating, is a remnant of Alexandria’s Roman occupation.


Hurghada is a resort town on the edge of the Red Sea, easily reached via a bumpy six-hour bus ride from Cairo. It offers a more popular alternative to Sharm El Sheikh and Dahab and is now one of Egypt’s most-visited tourist destinations. But that’s understandable, as there’s plenty to love about Hurghada with its many beaches and warm waters.

Traditional Egyptian Dishes

Ful Medames

The most popular street food snack in Egypt, Ful is a paste of mashed broad (fava) beans flavored with garlic and olive oil. It is labeled out of large copper pots, often into pockets of pitta bread and typically sold as an inexpensive takeaway sandwich.

Tamiya (falafel )

Another Egyptian street food staple, known elsewhere as falafel, Tamiya is made with mashed fava beans and parsley (instead of chickpeas, which are used elsewhere around the Mediterranean). It is made in the shape of flat discs rather than round balls and is typically eaten as a sandwich with salad.


One of the famous Egyptian dishes, A mix of rice, brown lentils and macaroni topped with fried onions and a spicy tomato sauce, koshari is normally eaten in dedicated koshari restaurants that serve the dish exclusively.


Shawarma one of the tasty Egyptian dishes, it is a large cone of pressed lamb or chicken that is rotated vertically in front of a flame grill. As the meat is cooked it is sliced off and mixed on a griddle with chopped tomato, onion and parsley before being rolled in a large disc of flatbread and wrapped in foil to take away.


Kebab and Kofta

Flame-grilled chunks of lamb (kebab) and spiced minced meat made into a sausage and grilled on a skewer (kofta) are a favorite Egyptian food meal. It is typically eaten with a simple chopped tomato and cucumber salad and a disc of flatbread.



It is one of the favorite dishes of Egyptians, Hard to like on the first encounter, this is a soup made from mallow leaves. Green in color, it has a thick, viscous texture. Egyptians eat it with meat such as rabbit or lamb. Fatimid Sultan Hakim found the dish so unappetizing that he had it banned in the 11th century.


A traditional delicacy food, pigeons (Hamaam) are bred throughout Egypt in conical pigeon towers. They are stuffed with seasoned rice or, even better, bulgur wheat (freek) before being grilled or baked.


Another great dish for vegetarian travelers. It basically consists of baked vegetables, usually peppers, zucchini or aubergine, stuffed with rice mixed with aromatic herbs (parsley, coriander…).It is accompanied by a drink sauce.

Egyptian Desserts

Egyptian desserts are quite light. Mahalabiya is a delicate rosewater-flavored ground rice dessert, topped with toasted nuts and cinnamon. Um Ali is similar to the English bread and butter pudding but is less soft and spongy as it is made with local dry bread. Roz bi laban is rice pudding, which is always served cold.


Egyptians are big fans of the sticky for this kind of food, syrup-drenched, nut-filled filo pastries known collectively as baklava. There are numerous different kinds such as konafa, which has a cream base and a crunchy vermicelli pastry crust and Basbousa, made of semolina pastry soaked in honey and topped with hazelnuts.

Feteer Meshaltet

One of the traditional old food, Fiteer is a light, flaky multilayered bread made from dough stretched paper-thin and folded several times. It is served stuffed with minced meat or cheese or just plain brushed with Samneh (ghee) or dusted with icing sugar.